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Explain and then carefully evaluate Alan Dershowitz’s necessity argument for interrogational torture. By “carefully evaluate,” I mean discuss in depth what you take to be the strongest objection to or the most serious problem with Dershowitz’s position. Listing a large number of problems without discussing any of them in detail does not count as careful evaluation. Making assertions that you do not argue for or telling me how you feel about some issue also does not count as careful evaluation.


Based on David Hume’s point of view, Summarises the 1) Reasons favour and against the claim by George Soros’ focus on wrong doubt and 2) Reasons favour and against the claim by Soros’ Back Pain

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Unit 3 Assignment

Instructions: Please note that the questions below are based on the Unit readings and are intended to be both an outline of the units’ material and the basis for your Unit Assessment, so please give your best effort to answering them thoroughly. The task is to respond to all 30 of the questions below. Each question will be worth one point.

The format for submission is to include the questions with the replies. Example:


How does one know what the good life is? 

 – The good life is…


1.     Define Theology. How is Theology different from the Philosophy of Religion?

2.     What are some of the questions Philosophy of Religion deals with?

3.     What are some of the difficulties and misconceptions associated with asking the question, what is Religion?

4.     List some of the common characteristics of religion.

5.     What are some of the common traits shared by the Religions of the West, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

6.     Define Theism, Monotheism, Pantheism, Panentheism, Polytheism, and Agnosticism.

7.     What are the three necessary properties associated with God in Western religious thought? Explain what each one means.

8.     What are some of the philosophical problem associated with the characteristics given to God in the Western Religious traditions?

9.     Briefly describe the Ontological Argument. (75-100 words)

10.  Briefly describe the Cosmological argument. (75-100 words)

11.  Briefly describe the Teleological Argument. (75-100 words)

12.  List and briefly explain the arguments that strive to prove God’s existence through experience.

13.  What is the philosophical Problem of Evil?

14.  What is a Theodicy?

15.  What is Natural Evil and how is it distinguished form Moral Evil? Give examples of both.

16.  What is Physical and Metaphysical evil? Give examples.

17.  What is the argument against God’s existence based on Natural Evil? Explain.

18.  Briefly describe the Theodicies of Augustine, Iraneus and John Hick.

19.  Contrast the claims of J.L. Makie and Alvin Plantinga.

20.  What is the meaning behind Alvin Plantinga’s Trans World Depravity?

21.  Explain the Free-Will arguments, and the counter arguments as they relate to the problem of moral evil.

22.  Briefly summarize the theodicy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz. Be sure to include his idea of the “best of all possible worlds.”(75-100 words)

23.  What is Process Theology? What is Open theism? What is Dipolar theism?

24.  How does Atheism resolve the problem of Evil?

25.  What is a Blik? What is a religious Blik? Give an example of both.

26.  What were Wittgenstein observations about the limits of language? How does it relate to foundational beliefs?

27.  Explain the Evidentialist Position on Basic Belief Systems.

28.  How does Thomas Aquinas explain the relationship between faith and reason? What is the difference between the commensurable, incommensurable, irrational and translational explanations of the relationship of faith and reason?

29.  Describe the reasoning involved in Pascal’s Wager? (75-100 words)

30.  What is Fideism? And, what is the Coherentist explanation of the relationship between faith and reason?


Paper Assignment 2: Due Fri 13 Nov 4 pages, 12pt font, double spaced, 1 inch margins (5 pages OK; 6 too many)


The audience is the same as before: a friend who doesn’t know any philosophy. Make sure to clearly explain key terms; give examples wherever possible; offer textual support for your interpretive claims; acknowledge your sources; and consider reasonable objections to your critical claims. The recommended structure is the same as before, except that you must include a thesis statement at the beginning of your paper. Ask your TA what a thesis statement is. 1. Write 4 pages that addresses one of the topics below well.


TOPIC A Briefly explain what Glaucon’s challenge is to Socrates at the start of Book II of the Republic, and then briefly explain how Socrates’s analogy with bodily health at the end of Book IV of the Republic is supposed to respond to that challenge. Is the response a good one? Why or why not?


TOPIC B Explain Callicles’s view of what’s good and admirable in a human life. Is his view the right one? Why or why not?


TOPIC C Explain Aristotle’s “function argument” from Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics. Is the argument a good one? Why or why not?


TOPIC D Explain why the Dalai Lama thinks that universal compassion is a necessary condition for real happiness for human beings. Is the Dalai Lama right about this? Why or why not?


TOPIC E Explain Mill’s criterion for one kind of pleasure being qualitatively superior to another kind. Is Mill right that pleasures of the intellect are qualitatively superior to the kinds of pleasure that a pig could enjoy? Why or why not?


TOPIC F Is pleasure the only intrinsic good? Why or why not? (In writing on this topic, you must explain and critically discuss the views of at least one of the philosophers we have read.)


Question description

Need 6-8 page essay with citations in MLA Format that will be turned in to turnitin.com. Original work only. Thesis Statement:In this essay I evaluate the philosophical puzzle: “If a tree falls in the forest and there’s no one around to hear it, does it make asound?”In my evaluation I explain that this question raises the epistemological problem ofhow a subjective experience, such as sound, relates to what can be known ofreality. I demonstrate that this question is a puzzle because it exposes the limits of whatwe can claim to know based on sensory experience. Lastly, I will explain howthe empiricist, John Locke, would evaluate and answer the puzzle. Resources:1. Encyclopedia or similar comprehensive works:Kemerling, Garth. “John Locke: The Origin ofIdeas.” Philosophy Pages. BritannicaInternet.2001. Web. 1 Mar. 2009.http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/4l.htmThis source is a quick introduction to Locke and hisphilosophical perspective and introduces the main themes in his work, AnEssay Concerning Human Understanding. It will also help me understand themore complicated aspects of Locke’s epistemology that I’ll be reading to writemy essay.Uzgalis, William. “John Locke: The Limits of HumanUnderstanding.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2007. Web. 1 Mar. 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/#LimHumUnd/This source presents a much more detailed analysis ofLocke’s epistemology from his work, AnEssay Concerning Human Understanding. 2. Secondary sources:E.J. Lowe. Routledge Philosophy Guide Book onLocke: On Human Understanding. NewYork, NY : Routledge, 1995. NetLibrary. 2002. 1 Mar. 2009http://www.netlibrary.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/urlapi.asp?action=summary&v=1&bookid=73470This source provides me with a comprehensive discussionof John Locke, the person, and the arguments he puts forth in An EssayConcerning Human Understanding. It will also help me understand the book asit relates to historical events and ideas. Additionally, it identifies argumentsfrom the work’s supporters and critics. 3.  Primarysources:Locke, John. An Essay Concerning HumanUnderstanding. Kitchener, Ont.: Batoche, 2001. Ebrary. 2005. 4 Oct. 2010.http://site.ebrary.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/lib/apus/Doc?id=2001993This is Locke’s own writing which allows me to readhow Lock perceived the problem of knowledge, experience and sensation in hisown words.4. Journal article database:EBSCO’s Academic Search EliteThis is a searchable database of scholarly articlesfrom many academic disciplines, including philosophy. I can use it to findcontemporary scholarly articles pertaining to epistemology, perception, and Locke.It also contains the full text of many of the articles.

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